Principles of Spectrum Analyzer

The architecture of the spectrum analyzer is like an oscilloscope for time domain use. The appearance is shown in Figure 1.2. There are many function control buttons on the panel to adjust and control the system functions. The main function of the system is to display the spectral characteristics of the input signal in the frequency domain. . According to different signal processing methods, there are generally two types of spectrum analyzers: Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer (Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer) and Sweep-Tuned Spectrum Analyzer (Sweep-Tuned Spectrum Analyzer). The function of the real-time frequency analyzer is to display the signal amplitude in the frequency domain at the same instant. Its working principle is to have corresponding filters and detectors for different frequency signals, and then through a synchronized multi-task scanner The signal is transmitted to the CRT screen. The advantage is that it can display the instantaneous response of Periodic Random Waves. The disadvantage is that it is expensive and the performance is limited by the bandwidth, the number of filters, and the largest multitasking exchange. Switching Time.

The most commonly used spectrum analyzer is a scanning tuned spectrum analyzer. Its basic structure is similar to a superheterodyne receiver. The working principle is that the input signal is directly applied to the mixer through the attenuator. The variable local oscillator is connected to the CRT. The synchronous scan generator generates an oscillation frequency that changes linearly with time. The intermediate frequency signal (IF) mixed and down-converted by the mixer and the input signal is then amplified, filtered, and detected to the vertical direction plate of the CRT. The vertical axis of the CRT shows the correspondence between signal amplitude and frequency, and the signal flow structure.

The important part that affects the signal response is the filter bandwidth. The characteristic of the filter is a Gaussian-Shaped Filter. The function of the filter is the resolution bandwidth (RBW, Resolution Bandwidth) commonly seen during measurement. RBW represents the minimum bandwidth difference between two signals of different frequencies that can be clearly distinguished. If the bandwidth of two signals of different frequencies is lower than the RBW of the spectrum analyzer, the two signals will overlap, making it difficult to distinguish. The low RBW certainly helps the resolution and measurement of signals of different frequencies. The low RBW will filter out the signal components of higher frequencies, resulting in distortion when the signal is displayed. The distortion value is closely related to the set RBW. The higher RBW Although it is helpful for the detection of broadband signals, it will increase the noise floor value and reduce the measurement sensitivity, which is easy to hinder the detection of low-intensity signals. Therefore, an appropriate RBW width is important for the correct use of a spectrum analyzer. concept.

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