Performance comparison between smart card storage unit EEPROM, Flash and FRAM

The semiconductor memory can be divided into two types: volatile memory and non-volatile memory. The former loses the memory data after power-off, and the latter can maintain the data even when the power is turned off. Volatile memory can be further divided into DRAM and SRAM. The ROM is a non-volatile memory. The ROM is divided into two types according to whether the user can write data. One type is a ROM that the user can write, and the other type is called by the manufacturer during the processing. For the MASK ROM. The writeable ROM is divided into O TP ROM (One Time Programmable ROM), EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM), EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM), flash memory, and FRAM (Ferroelectric RAM).

The non-volatile memory as a smart card storage unit mainly includes an electrically rewritable programmable read only memory EEPROM, a flash memory, a flash memory, and a ferroelectric memory FRAM.

EEPROM is the most typical electrically rewritable non-volatile memory. It is a non-volatile semiconductor memory developed since the 1980s. It is electrically programmable, erasable/writable, and flexible. The process basis of EEPROM is CMOS technology. As CMOS technology develops to sub-micron, the integration of EEPROM is constantly improving.

Both Flash Memory and FRAM are a new generation of non-volatile memory. Flash Memory was introduced in 1987. It is the product of mature EEPROM and the development of semiconductor technology to sub-micron technology and large-capacity rewritable memory, while FRAM It was in the 1970s that there was a breakthrough in key technologies that did not enter the industrialization stage until the 1990s. It is a capacitor memory that uses ferroelectric thin films for memory data. Due to the use of ferroelectric thin films on memory cells, FRAM has the advantages of high speed, high frequency rewriting, low power consumption and non-volatile. In addition, FRAM can perform read/write operations under low voltage conditions, especially for smart cards and portable devices that require low power consumption.

One. Performance comparison between Flash Memory and EEPROM:

Both Flash memory and EEPROM are electrically erasable and programmable memories. Their principle is to store data in the form of charge on the floating gate electrode. Compared with EEPROM, Flash has unparalleled advantages in terms of integration. Because Flash Memory uses a single-tube unit, it can achieve high integration, and its cell area is only 1/4 of that of conventional EEPROM.

There are two main programming methods for Flash Memory cells: channel hot electron injection (CHE) and tunneling (Fowler-Nordheim). Channel hot electron injection (CHE) is currently the most widely used programming method for Flash Memory. The programming time for channel hot electron injection CHE is on the order of microseconds, while the tunneling (Fowler-Nordheim) programming time is typically on the order of milliseconds. The way EEPROM is programmed is tunneling. Therefore, Flash memory programming time is faster than EEPROM.

The following table shows the performance comparison of Flash Memory and EEPROM:



In the unit

Number of transistors






the complexity



it is good








When writing

Automatic erasure










Word group


two. Performance comparison between FRAM and EEPROM and Flash memory:

The basic principle of the FRAM memory cell is the ferroelectric effect, which is a ferroelectric memory device that is stored in a spontaneously polarized form of a ferroelectric thin film. Since the FRAM controls the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric capacitor through an external electric field, and through hot electron injection or Compared with Flash memory, which has a tunneling effect and a write operation, FRAM has a fast write speed (more than 1000 times that of EEPROM and Flash) because it does not require high voltage during erasing, so the power consumption during writing is large. To reduce (1/1000-1/100000 for EEPROM and Flash), it is especially suitable for low power applications such as contactless cards or dual interface cards. In addition, since the tunnel oxide film is not required, the number of times of data rewriting is greatly improved compared with flash memory and EEPROM (10 5 - 10 6 for EEPROM or flash, and 10 12 or more for FRAM).

The following table shows the performance comparison between FRAM and Flash Memory and EEPROM:

Technology type



Flash memory

Data storage

10 years

10 years

10 years

Unit structure

2T/2C, 1T/1C



Unit size




Write voltage

2 — 5V



Number of rewrites

10 10 --10 12

10 5 — 10 6

10 5 — 10 6

Average power consumption




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